All tags neuroscience アストロサイト・マーカー

アストロサイト・マーカー

星型の形状をしていることからその名が付けられたアストロサイトは、ニューロンの 5 倍程度存在する、中枢神経系で最も数が多い細胞です。中枢神経系におけるその役割は幅広く、シナプス伝達や血液脳関門(BBB)のサポートの他、イオン濃度や pH などの恒常性の維持を担っています。さらに、発生期におけるシナプスの形成や維持、脳が外傷を負った場合の修復や再生においても重要な役割を果たしています。

アストロサイトは、解剖学的な分類(原形質型グリア、線維型グリアなど)や機能面での分類(反応性アストロサイトなど)によって、複数のサブタイプに分けられます。これらの分別にも有用な、アストロサイトの主なマーカー・タンパク質とそれらに対する抗体をご紹介します。


GFAP
An intermediate filament and major component of the astrocyte cytoskeleton.

Mouse brain tissue sections stained with ant-GFAP (ab7260).

Browse all GFAP antibodies


EAAT1/GLAST
An astrocyte-specific glutamate transporter.

Zebrafish retina tissue sections stained with anti-EAAT1 (green) (ab416).

Browse all EAAT1/GLAST antibodies

Selective EAAT1 inhibitors: UCPH-101 (ab120309) and UCPH-102 (ab146404)


EAAT2/GLT-1
An astrocyte-specific glutamate transporter.

Mouse brain tissue sections stained with anti-EAAT2 (green) (ab41621).

Browse all EAAT2/GLT-1 antibodies

Selective EAAT2 inhibitor: Dihydrokainic acid (ab120066)
Stimulator of EAAT2 expression: Ceftriaxone (ab120871)

Potent and competitive EAAT1-4 inhibitors: L-(-)-threo-3-Hydroxyaspartic acid (ab146130) and L-trans-Pyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid (ab146131)


Glutamine synthetase
An enzyme involved in the metabolism of nitrogen. In the brain it is primarily found in astrocytes.

Rat brain tissue sections stained with anti-glutamine synthetase (ab73593).

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S100 beta
A calcium binding protein, also found in oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) Double labeling with NG2 will distinguish the OPCs from the astrocytes.

Mouse brain tissue sections stained with anti-S100 beta (ab52642).

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ALDH1L1
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 10-formyltetrahydrofolate, NADP+ and water to tetrahydrofolate, NADPH and CO2.

Mouse brain tissue sections stained with anti-ALDH1L1 (red) (ab87117).

Browse all ALDH1L1 antibodies


参考文献

  • Abrahamsen, B. et al. Allosteric modulation of an excitatory amino acid transporter: the subtype-selective inhibitor UCPH-101 exerts sustained inhibition of EAAT1 through an intramonomeric site in the trimerization domain. J. Neurosci. 33, 1068–87 (2013).
  • Cahoy, J. D. et al. A transcriptome database for astrocytes, neurons, and oligodendrocytes: a new resource for understanding brain development and function. J. Neurosci. 28, 264–78 (2008).
  • Dimou, L. & Götz, M. Glial Cells as Progenitors and Stem Cells: New Roles in the Healthy and Diseased Brain. Physiol. Rev. 94, 709–737 (2014).
  • Kriegstein, A. R. & Götz, M. Radial glia diversity: A matter of cell fate. Glia 43, 37–43 (2003).
  • Lee, S.-G. et al. Mechanism of ceftriaxone induction of excitatory amino acid transporter-2 expression and glutamate uptake in primary human astrocytes. J. Biol. Chem. 283, 13116–23 (2008).
  • Medrano, M. C., Gerrikagoitia, I., Martínez-Millán, L., Mendiguren, A. & Pineda, J. Functional and morphological characterization of glutamate transporters in the rat locus coeruleus. Br. J. Pharmacol. 169, 1781–94 (2013).
  • Shigeri, Y. et al. Effects of threo-β-hydroxyaspartate derivatives on excitatory amino acid transporters (EAAT4 and EAAT5). J. Neurochem. 79, 297–302 (2008).




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