The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
WB: Use at a concentration of 0.1 - 0.3 µg/ml. Detects a band of approximately 147 kDa (predicted molecular weight: 147 kDa).
Peptide ELISA: antibody detection limit dilution 1/128000.
Not yet tested in other applications.
Optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
May act as a GTPase-activating protein for RAB2A, RAB8A, RAB10 and RAB14. Isoform 2 promotes insulin-induced glucose transporter SLC2A4/GLUT4 translocation at the plasma membrane, thus increasing glucose uptake.
Widely expressed. Isoform 2 is the highest overexpressed in most tissues. Isoform 1 is highly expressed in skeletal muscle and heart, but was not detectable in the liver nor in adipose tissue. Isoform 2 is strongly expressed in adrenal and thyroid gland, and also in lung, kidney, colon, brain and adipose tissue. Isoform 2 is moderately expressed in skeletal muscle. Expressed in pancreatic Langerhans islets, including beta cells (at protein level). Expression is decreased by twofold in pancreatic islets in type 2 diabetes patients compared to control subjects. Up-regulated in T cells from patients with atopic dermatitis.
Phosphorylated by AKT1; insulin-induced. Insulin-stimulated phosphorylation is required for SLC2A4/GLUT4 translocation. Physiological hyperinsulinemia increases phosphorylation in skeletal muscle. Insulin-stimulated phosphorylation is reduced by 39% in type 2 diabetic patients.
Cytoplasm. Isoform 2 shows a cytoplasmic perinuclear localization in a myoblastic cell line in resting and insulin-stimulated cells.
Berenguer M et al. A serum factor induces insulin-independent translocation of GLUT4 to the cell surface which is maintained in insulin resistance. PLoS One5:e15560 (2010).
Read more (PubMed: 21187969) »