The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
Use 2µg for 106 cells. ab170190-Mouse monoclonal IgG1, is suitable for use as an isotype control with this antibody.
Calcium-binding protein. Has antimicrobial activity towards bacteria and fungi. Important for resistance to invasion by pathogenic bacteria. Up-regulates transcription of genes that are under the control of NF-kappa-B. Plays a role in the development of endotoxic shock in response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (By similarity). Promotes tubulin polymerization when unphosphorylated. Promotes phagocyte migration and infiltration of granulocytes at sites of wounding. Plays a role as a pro-inflammatory mediator in acute and chronic inflammation and up-regulates the release of IL8 and cell-surface expression of ICAM1. Extracellular calprotectin binds to target cells and promotes apoptosis. Antimicrobial and proapoptotic activity is inhibited by zinc ions.
Expressed by macrophages in acutely inflammed tissues and in chronic inflammation. Detected in peripheral blood leukocytes, in neutrophils and granulocytes. Detected at sites of vascular inflammation (at protein level). Also expressed in epithelial cells constitutively or induced during dermatoses.
Belongs to the S-100 family. Contains 2 EF-hand domains.
Phosphorylated. Phosphorylation inhibits activation of tubulin polymerization.
Secreted. Cytoplasm. Cytoplasm > cytoskeleton. Cell membrane. Associates with tubulin filaments in activated monocytes. Targeted to the cell surface upon calcium influx. Released from blood leukocytes upon exposure to CSF2/GM-CSF, bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and during inflammatory processes. Serum levels are high in patients suffering from chronic inflammation.
Tissue Distribution by Flow Cytometry Analysis
Cell cncentration: 1 x 106 cells per test
ab112228 concentration used: 2.0 µg/106 cells
Isotypic control (shaded): Purified Mouse IgG1
Cell source: Human peripheral blood leukocytes
PE Secondary antibody
Percentage of cells stained above control: 74.7%
Thacher SM et al. Cell type and gene-specific activity of the retinoid inverse agonist AGN 193109: divergent effects from agonist at retinoic acid receptor gamma in human keratinocytes. Cell Growth Differ10:255-62 (1999).
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Klein ES et al. Identification and functional separation of retinoic acid receptor neutral antagonists and inverse agonists. J Biol Chem271:22692-6 (1996).
Read more (PubMed: 8798442) »