Activator of the beta-catenin signaling cascade, leading to TCF-dependent gene activation. Acts both in the canonical Wnt/beta-catenin-dependent pathway, possibly via a direct interaction with Wnt proteins, and in a Wnt-independent beta catenin pathway through a receptor signaling pathway that may not use frizzled/LRP receptors. Acts as a ligand for frizzled FZD8 and LRP6. May negatively regulate the TGF-beta pathway. Has a essential roles in ovary determination.
Abundantly expressed in adrenal glands, ovary, testis, thyroid and trachea but not in bone marrow, spinal cord, stomach, leukocytes colon, small intestine, prostate, thymus and spleen.
Defects in RSPO1 are the cause of palmoplantar keratoderma with squamous cell carcinoma of skin and sex reversal (PKKSCC) [MIM:610644]. This recessive syndrome is characterized by XX (female to male) SRY-independent sex reversal, palmoplantar hyperkeratosis and predisposition to squamous cell carcinoma of the skin.
Belongs to the R-spondin family. Contains 2 FU (furin-like) repeats. Contains 1 TSP type-1 domain.
The FU repeats are required for activation and stabilization of beta-catenin.
Shi GX et al. Evidence of the Role of R-Spondin 1 and Its Receptor Lgr4 in the Transmission of Mechanical Stimuli to Biological Signals for Bone Formation. Int J Mol Sci18:N/A (2017).
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