This protein is an auxiliary protein of DNA polymerase delta and is involved in the control of eukaryotic DNA replication by increasing the polymerase's processibility during elongation of the leading strand. Induces a robust stimulatory effect on the 3'-5' exonuclease and 3'-phosphodiesterase, but not apurinic-apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease, APEX2 activities. Has to be loaded onto DNA in order to be able to stimulate APEX2.
Belongs to the PCNA family.
Upon methyl methanesulfonate-induced DNA damage, mono-ubiquitinated by the UBE2B-RAD18 complex on Lys-164. This induces non-canonical polyubiquitination on Lys-164 through 'Lys-63' linkage of ubiquitin moieties by the E2 complex UBE2N-UBE2V2 and the E3 ligases, HLTF, RNF8 and SHPRH, which is required for DNA repair. 'Lys-63' polyubiquitination prevents genomic instability on DNA damage. Monoubiquitination at Lys-164 also takes place in undamaged proliferating cells, and is mediated by the DCX(DTL) complex, leading to enhance PCNA-dependent translesion DNA synthesis. Acetylated in response to UV irradiation. Acetylation disrupts interaction with NUDT15 and promotes degradation.
Nucleus. Forms nuclear foci representing sites of ongoing DNA replication and vary in morphology and number during S phase. Together with APEX2, is redistributed in discrete nuclear foci in presence of oxidative DNA damaging agents.