Functions as a master transcriptional regulator of the adaptive response to hypoxia. Under hypoxic conditions activates the transcription of over 40 genes, including, erythropoietin, glucose transporters, glycolytic enzymes, vascular endothelial growth factor, and other genes whose protein products increase oxygen delivery or facilitate metabolic adaptation to hypoxia. Plays an essential role in embryonic vascularization, tumor angiogenesis and pathophysiology of ischemic disease. Binds to core DNA sequence 5'-[AG]CGTG-3' within the hypoxia response element (HRE) of target gene promoters. Activation requires recruitment of transcriptional coactivators such as CREBPB and EP300. Activity is enhanced by interaction with both, NCOA1 or NCOA2. Interaction with redox regulatory protein APEX seems to activate CTAD and potentiates activation by NCOA1 and CREBBP.
Expressed in most tissues with highest levels in kidney and heart. Overexpressed in the majority of common human cancers and their metastases, due to the presence of intratumoral hypoxia and as a result of mutations in genes encoding oncoproteins and tumor suppressors.
Contains two independent C-terminal transactivation domains, NTAD and CTAD, which function synergistically. Their transcriptional activity is repressed by an intervening inhibitory domain (ID).
In normoxia, is hydroxylated on Pro-402 and Pro-564 in the oxygen-dependent degradation domain (ODD) by EGLN1/PHD1 and EGLN2/PHD2. EGLN3/PHD3 has also been shown to hydroxylate Pro-564. The hydroxylated prolines promote interaction with VHL, initiating rapid ubiquitination and subsequent proteasomal degradation. Deubiquitinated by USP20. Under hypoxia, proline hydroxylation is impaired and ubiquitination is attenuated, resulting in stabilization. In normoxia, is hydroxylated on Asn-803 by HIF1AN, thus abrogating interaction with CREBBP and EP300 and preventing transcriptional activation. This hydroxylation is inhibited by the Cu/Zn-chelator, Clioquinol. S-nitrosylation of Cys-800 may be responsible for increased recruitment of p300 coactivator necessary for transcriptional activity of HIF-1 complex. Requires phosphorylation for DNA-binding. Sumoylated; by SUMO1 under hypoxia. Sumoylation is enhanced through interaction with RWDD3. Desumoylation by SENP1 leads to increased HIF1A stability and transriptional activity. Ubiquitinated; in normoxia, following hydroxylation and interaction with VHL. Lys-532 appears to be the principal site of ubiquitination. Clioquinol, the Cu/Zn-chelator, inhibits ubiquitination through preventing hydroxylation at Asn-803. The iron and 2-oxoglutarate dependent 3-hydroxylation of asparagine is (S) stereospecific within HIF CTAD domains.
Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Cytoplasmic in normoxia, nuclear translocation in response to hypoxia. Colocalizes with SUMO1 in the nucleus, under hypoxia.