The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
IHC-P: Use at an assay dependent dilution. Perform heat mediated antigen retrieval before commencing with IHC staining protocol (for 20min in 0.1% citric acid buffer).
Not tested in other applications.
Optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
Important regulator of cell cycle progression. Involved in G1 arrest. Potent inhibitor of cyclin E- and cyclin A-CDK2 complexes. Forms a complex with cyclin type D-CDK4 complexes and is involved in the assembly, stability, and modulation of CCND1-CDK4 complex activation. Acts either as an inhibitor or an activator of cyclin type D-CDK4 complexes depending on its phosphorylation state and/or stoichometry.
Expressed in all tissues tested. Highest levels in skeletal muscle, lowest in liver and kidney.
Defects in CDKN1B are the cause of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 4 (MEN4) [MIM:610755]. Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes are inherited cancer syndromes of the thyroid. MEN4 is a MEN-like syndrome with a phenotypic overlap of both MEN1 and MEN2.
Belongs to the CDI family.
A peptide sequence containing only AA 28-79 retains substantial Kip1 cyclin A/CDK2 inhibitory activity.
Phosphorylated; phosphorylation occurs on serine, threonine and tyrosine residues. Phosphorylation on Ser-10 is the major site of phosphorylation in resting cells, takes place at the G(0)-G(1) phase and leads to protein stability. Phosphorylation on other sites is greatly enhanced by mitogens, growth factors, cMYC and in certain cancer cell lines. The phosphorylated form found in the cytoplasm is inactivate. Phosphorylation on Thr-198 is required for interaction with 14-3-3 proteins. Phosphorylation on Thr-187, by CDK2 leads to protein ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Tyrosine phosphorylation promotes this process. Phosphorylation by PKB/AKT1 can be suppressed by LY294002, an inhibitor of the catalytic subunit of PI3K. Phosphorylation on Tyr-88 and Tyr-89 has no effect on binding CDK2, but is required for binding CDK4. Dephosphorylated on tyrosine residues by G-CSF. Ubiquitinated; in the cytoplasm by the KPC complex (composed of RNF123/KPC1 and UBAC1/KPC2) and, in the nucleus, by SCF(SKP2). The latter requires prior phosphorylation on Thr-187. Ubiquitinated; by a TRIM21-containing SCF(SKP2)-like complex; leads to its degradation. Subject to degradation in the lysosome. Interaction with SNX6 promotes lysosomal degradation.
Nucleus. Cytoplasm. Endosome. Nuclear and cytoplasmic in quiescent cells. AKT-or RSK-mediated phosphorylation on Thr-198, binds 14-3-3, translocates to the cytoplasm and promotes cell cycle progression. Mitogen-activated UHMK1 phosphorylation on Ser-10 also results in translocation to the cytoplasm and cell cycle progression. Phosphorylation on Ser-10 facilitates nuclear export. Translocates to the nucleus on phosphorylation of Tyr-88 and Tyr-89. Colocalizes at the endosome with SNX6 and this leads to lysosomal degradation.
ICC/IF image of ab15491 stained A431 cells. The cells were 100% methanol fixed (5 min) and then incubated in 1%BSA / 10% normal goat serum / 0.3M glycine in 0.1% PBS-Tween for 1h to permeabilise the cells and block non-specific protein-protein interactions. The cells were then incubated with the antibody (ab15491, Neat) overnight at +4°C. The secondary antibody (green) was ab96899, DyLight® 488 goat anti-rabbit IgG (H+L) used at a 1/250 dilution for 1h. Alexa Fluor® 594 WGA was used to label plasma membranes (red) at a 1/200 dilution for 1h. DAPI was used to stain the cell nuclei (blue) at a concentration of 1.43µM.
Puig I et al. Deletion of Pten in the mouse enteric nervous system induces ganglioneuromatosis and mimics intestinal pseudoobstruction. J Clin Invest119:3586-96 (2009).
Read more (PubMed: 19884655) »