The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
Measurement of lambda light chain in human lysed whole peripheral blood or mononuclear cells separated by density gradient.
Studies of clonality of B cell lymphomas in tissue.
Studies of clonality of B cell leukemias in peripheral blood.
Lambda (PE) immunofluorescence analysis can be performed on a flow cytometerequipped with an excitation source of 488nm and fitted with logarithmic amplifiers.
10µl ofLambda (PE) is sufficient for labelling of 1x106 cells.
All five immunoglobulin classes share the same basic four polypeptide chain structure of two heavy-chains and two light chains. There are five heavy chain types, and two light-chain types (Kappa and Lambda) both having a molecular weight of 22.5kDa. Any heavy-chain type can associate with either light-chain type, but on any immunoglobulin molecule both light-chains are of the same type. Kappa and Lambda consist of a variable region and a constant region and can easily be differentiated by the antigenic properties of the constant region. The ratio of Kappa to Lambda is 70:30 , the vast majority of which is bound to heavy-chain in immunoglobulin. In normal individuals low levels of free light-chain arepresent in serum (kappa, 1.6-15.2 mg/L; Lambda, 0.4-4.2mg/L), with the occurrence of multiple myeloma or other B-cell malignancies these levels can be greatly elevated and can be found at high levels in the urine (Bence-Jones proteins).