The application notes include recommended starting dilutions; optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.
70 - 90% by HPLC.
- First try to dissolve a small amount of peptide in either water or buffer. The more charged residues on a peptide, the more soluble it is in aqueous solutions. - If the peptide doesn’t dissolve try an organic solvent e.g. DMSO, then dilute using water or buffer. - Consider that any solvent used must be compatible with your assay. If a peptide does not dissolve and you need to recover it, lyophilise to remove the solvent. - Gentle warming and sonication can effectively aid peptide solubilisation. If the solution is cloudy or has gelled the peptide may be in suspension rather than solubilised. - Peptides containing cysteine are easily oxidised, so should be prepared in solution just prior to use.
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Shipped at 4°C. Upon delivery aliquot and store at -20°C or -80°C. Avoid repeated freeze / thaw cycles.
Integrins alpha-1/beta-1, alpha-2/beta-1, alpha-10/beta-1 and alpha-11/beta-1 are receptors for collagen. Integrins alpha-1/beta-1 and alpha-2/beta-2 recognize the proline-hydroxylated sequence G-F-P-G-E-R in collagen. Integrins alpha-2/beta-1, alpha-3/beta-1, alpha-4/beta-1, alpha-5/beta-1, alpha-8/beta-1, alpha-10/beta-1, alpha-11/beta-1 and alpha-V/beta-1 are receptors for fibronectin. Alpha-4/beta-1 recognizes one or more domains within the alternatively spliced CS-1 and CS-5 regions of fibronectin. Integrin alpha-5/beta-1 is a receptor for fibrinogen. Integrin alpha-1/beta-1, alpha-2/beta-1, alpha-6/beta-1 and alpha-7/beta-1 are receptors for lamimin. Integrin alpha-4/beta-1 is a receptor for VCAM1. It recognizes the sequence Q-I-D-S in VCAM1. Integrin alpha-9/beta-1 is a receptor for VCAM1, cytotactin and osteopontin. It recognizes the sequence A-E-I-D-G-I-E-L in cytotactin. Integrin alpha-3/beta-1 is a receptor for epiligrin, thrombospondin and CSPG4. Alpha-3/beta-1 may mediate with LGALS3 the stimulation by CSPG4 of endothelial cells migration. Integrin alpha-V/beta-1 is a receptor for vitronectin. Beta-1 integrins recognize the sequence R-G-D in a wide array of ligands. Isoform 2 interferes with isoform 1 resulting in a dominant negative effect on cell adhesion and migration (in vitro). When associated with alpha-7/beta-1 integrin, regulates cell adhesion and laminin matrix deposition. Involved in promoting endothelial cell motility and angiogenesis. Involved in osteoblast compaction through the fibronectin fibrillogenesis cell-mediated matrix assembly process and the formation of mineralized bone nodules. May be involved in up-regulation of the activity of kinases such as PKC via binding to KRT1. Together with KRT1 and RACK1, serves as a platform for SRC activation or inactivation. Plays a mechanistic adhesive role during telophase, required for the successful completion of cytokinesis. Integrin alpha-3/beta-1 provides a docking site for FAP (seprase) at invadopodia plasma membranes in a collagen-dependent manner and hence may participate in the adhesion, formation of invadopodia and matrix degradation processes, promoting cell invasion. ITGA4:ITGB1 binds to fractalkine (CX3CL1) and may act as its coreceptor in CX3CR1-dependent fractalkine signaling (PubMed:23125415, PubMed:24789099). ITGA4:ITGB1 and ITGA5:ITGB1 bind to PLA2G2A via a site (site 2) which is distinct from the classical ligand-binding site (site 1) and this induces integrin conformational changes and enhanced ligand binding to site 1 (PubMed:18635536, PubMed:25398877). ITGA5:ITGB1 acts as a receptor for fibrillin-1 (FBN1) and mediates R-G-D-dependent cell adhesion to FBN1 (PubMed:12807887, PubMed:17158881). Isoform 5: Isoform 5 displaces isoform 1 in striated muscles. (Microbial infection) Integrin ITGA2:ITGB1 acts as a receptor for human echoviruses 1 and 8 (PubMed:8411387). Acts as a receptor for cytomegalovirus/HHV-5 (PubMed:20660204). Acts as a receptor for Epstein-Barr virus/HHV-4 (PubMed:17945327). Integrin ITGA5:ITGB1 acts as a receptor for human parvovirus B19 (PubMed:12907437). Integrin ITGA2:ITGB1 acts as a receptor for human rotavirus (PubMed:12941907). Acts as a receptor for mammalian reovirus (PubMed:16501085). In case of HIV-1 infection, integrin ITGA5:ITGB1 binding to extracellular viral Tat protein seems to enhance angiogenesis in Kaposi's sarcoma lesions (PubMed:10397733).
Isoform 1 is widely expressed, other isoforms are generally coexpressed with a more restricted distribution. Isoform 2 is expressed in skin, liver, skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, placenta, umbilical vein endothelial cells, neuroblastoma cells, lymphoma cells, hepatoma cells and astrocytoma cells. Isoform 3 and isoform 4 are expressed in muscle, kidney, liver, placenta, cervical epithelium, umbilical vein endothelial cells, fibroblast cells, embryonal kidney cells, platelets and several blood cell lines. Isoform 4, rather than isoform 3, is selectively expressed in peripheral T-cells. Isoform 3 is expressed in non-proliferating and differentiated prostate gland epithelial cells and in platelets, on the surface of erythroleukemia cells and in various hematopoietic cell lines. Isoform 5 is expressed specifically in striated muscle (skeletal and cardiac muscle).
Belongs to the integrin beta chain family. Contains 1 VWFA domain.
The cysteine residues are involved in intrachain disulfide bonds.
Cell membrane, sarcolemma. Cell junction. In cardiac muscle, isoform 5 is found in costameres and intercalated disks and Cell membrane. Cell projection, invadopodium membrane. Cell projection, ruffle membrane. Recycling endosome. Melanosome. Cleavage furrow. Cell projection, lamellipodium. Cell projection, ruffle. Cell junction, focal adhesion. Cell surface. Isoform 2 does not localize to focal adhesions. Highly enriched in stage I melanosomes. Located on plasma membrane of neuroblastoma NMB7 cells. In a lung cancer cell line, in prometaphase and metaphase, localizes diffusely at the membrane and in a few intracellular vesicles. In early telophase, detected mainly on the matrix-facing side of the cells. By mid-telophase, concentrated to the ingressing cleavage furrow, mainly to the basal side of the furrow. In late telophase, concentrated to the extending protrusions formed at the opposite ends of the spreading daughter cells, in vesicles at the base of the lamellipodia formed by the separating daughter cells. Colocalizes with ITGB1BP1 and metastatic suppressor protein NME2 at the edge or peripheral ruffles and lamellipodia during the early stages of cell spreading on fibronectin or collagen. Translocates from peripheral focal adhesions sites to fibrillar adhesions in a ITGB1BP1-dependent manner. Enriched preferentially at invadopodia, cell membrane protrusions that correspond to sites of cell invasion, in a collagen-dependent manner. Localized at plasma and ruffle membranes in a collagen-independent manner.