Plays a crucial role in B-cell ontogeny. Transiently phosphorylates GTF2I on tyrosine residues in response to B-cell receptor cross-linking. Required for the formation of functional ARID3A DNA-binding complexes.
Defects in BTK are the cause of X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) [MIM:300755]; also known as X-linked agammaglobulinemia type 1 (AGMX1) or immunodeficiency type 1 (IMD1). XLA is a humoral immunodeficiency disease which results in developmental defects in the maturation pathway of B-cells. Affected boys have normal levels of pre-B-cells in their bone marrow but virtually no circulating mature B-lymphocytes. This results in a lack of immunoglobulins of all classes and leads to recurrent bacterial infections like otitis, conjunctivitis, dermatitis, sinusitis in the first few years of life, or even some patients present overwhelming sepsis or meningitis, resulting in death in a few hours. Treatment in most cases is by infusion of intravenous immunoglobulin. Defects in BTK may be the cause of X-linked hypogammaglobulinemia and isolated growth hormone deficiency (XLA-IGHD) [MIM:307200]; also known as agammaglobulinemia and isolated growth hormone deficiency or Fleisher syndrome or isolated growth hormone deficiency type 3 (IGHD3). In rare cases XLA is inherited together with isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD).
Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. Tyr protein kinase family. TEC subfamily. Contains 1 Btk-type zinc finger. Contains 1 PH domain. Contains 1 protein kinase domain. Contains 1 SH2 domain. Contains 1 SH3 domain.
Autophosphorylated on Tyr-223 and Tyr-551. Phosphorylation of Tyr-223 may create a docking site for a SH2 containing protein.