Activation of the C1 complex is under control of the C1-inhibitor. It forms a proteolytically inactive stoichiometric complex with the C1r or C1s proteases. May play a potentially crucial role in regulating important physiological pathways including complement activation, blood coagulation, fibrinolysis and the generation of kinins. Very efficient inhibitor of FXIIa. Inhibits chymotrypsin and kallikrein.
Defects in SERPING1 are the cause of hereditary angioedema (HAE) [MIM:106100]; also called hereditary angioneurotic edema (HANE). HAE is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by episodic local subcutaneous edema and submucosal edema involving the upper respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. HAE due to C1 esterase inhibitor deficiency is comprised of two clinically indistinguishable forms. In HAE type 1, representing 85% of patients, serum levels of C1 esterase inhibitor are less than 35% of normal. In HAE type 2, the levels are normal or elevated, but the protein is non-functional.
Belongs to the serpin family.
Highly glycosylated (49%) with N- and O-glycosylation. Can be proteolytically cleaved by E.coli stcE.